Accelerated Velocity: Building Great Teams

Note: this article is part 3 of a series called Accelerated Velocity.  This part can be read stand-alone, but I recommend that you read the earlier parts so as to have the overall context.

People working in teams are at the heart of every company.  Great companies have great people working in high performing teams.  Companies without great people will find it very difficult to get exceptional results. 

The harsh reality is that there aren’t that many great people to go around.  This results in competition for top talent, which is especially true in tech.  Companies and organizations use diverse strategies in addressing this challenge.  Some use their considerable resources (e.g. cash) to buy top talent though with dubious results – think big corporations and Wall Street banks.  Some create environments that are very attractive to the type of people they’re looking for – think Google and Amazon.  Some purposely start with inexperienced but promising people and develop their own talent – a strategy used by the big consulting companies.  Many drop out of the race altogether and settle for average or worse (and then hire the consulting companies to try to solve their challenges with processes and technology – which is great for the consulting companies).

But attracting talent is only half the battle.  Companies that succeed in hiring solid performers then have to ensure their people are in a position to perform, and this brings us to their teams.  Teams have a massive amplifying affect on the quantity and quality of each individual’s output.  My gut tells me that the same person working on two different teams may be 2-3X as productive depending on the quality of the team. 

So no matter how good a company is at attracting top talent, it then needs to ensure that the talent operates in healthy teams. 

What is a healthy team?  From my experience it looks something like this:

  • Competent, motivated people who are…
  • Equipped to succeed and operate with…
  • High integrity and professionalism…
  • Aligned behind a mission / vision

That doesn’t seem too hard.  So why aren’t healthy teams the norm?  Simple: because they’re fragile.  If any of the above pieces are missing, the integrity of the team is at risk.  Throw in tolerance for low performers, arrogant assholes, and whiners, mix in some disrespect and fear, and the team is broken.

(Note that the negatives influences outweigh the positives – as the proverb says: “One bad apple spoils the whole bushel.”  If you play sports you know this phenomenon well – a team full of solid players can easily be undone by a single weak link that disrupts the integrity of the team.)

This leads me to a few basic rules I follow when developing teams:

  1. Provide solid leadership
  2. Recruit selectively
  3. Invest in growth and development
  4. Break down barriers to getting and keeping good people
  5. Aggressively address low-performance and disruption

Bonial had a young team with a wide range of skill and experience in 2014.  Fortunately many of the team members had a bounty of raw talent and were motivated (or desired to be motivated).  Unfortunately there were also quite a few under-performers as well as some highly negative and disruptive personalities in the mix.  The combination of inexperience, underperformance and disruption had an amplifying downward effect on the teams.

To build confidence and start accelerating performance we needed to turn this situation around.  We started by counseling and, if behavior didn’t change, letting go the most egregiously low performers and disruptive people – not an easy thing to do and somewhat frowned upon in both the company and in German culture.   But the cost of keeping them on the team, thereby neutralizing and demoralizing the high performers, was far higher than the pain and cost of letting them go. 

(A quick side note: there were concerns among the management that letting low-performers go would demoralize the rest of the team.  Not surprisingly, quite the opposite happened – the teams were relieved to have the burdens lifted and were encouraged to know that their leads were committed to building high performing teams.)

We started doing a better job of mentoring people and setting clear performance goals.  Many thrived with guidance and coaching; some didn’t and we often mutually decided to part ways.  Over time the culture changed to where low performance and negativity were no longer tolerated.

At the same time we invested heavily in recruiting.  We hired dedicated internal recruiters specifically focussed on tech recruits.  We overhauled our recruiting and interview process to better screen for the talent, mentality and personality we needed.  We added rigor to our senior hiring practices, focussing more on assessing what the person can do vs what they say they can do.  And we added structure to the six month “probation” period, placing and enforcing gates throughout the process to ensure we’d hired the right people.  Finally, we learned the hard way that settling for mediocre candidates was not the path to success; it was far better to leave a position unfilled than to fill it with the wrong person.

How did we attract great candidates?  We focussed on our strengths and on attracting people who valued those attributes: opportunities for growth, freedom to make a substantial impact, competent team-mates, camaraderie, a culture of respect, and exposure to cutting-edge technologies.  Why these?  Because year over year, though employee satisfaction survey and direct feedback, we find these elements correlate very strongly with employee satisfaction, even more so than compensation and other benefits.  In short, we’ve worked hard to create an environment where our team-mates are excited to come to work every day.

(This is not to say we ignored competitive compensation; as I’ll describe in a later post, we also worked to ensure we paid a fair market salary and then provided a path for increasing compensation over time with experience.)

Over time, as our people became more experienced, our processes matured and our technology set became more advanced, Bonial became a great place for tech professionals to sharpen their skills and hone their craft.  New team members brought fresh ideas and at the same time had an opportunity to learn both by what we already had as well as what they helped create.  The result is what we have today: a team of teams full of capable professionals who are together performing at a level many times higher than in 2014

Some closing thoughts:

  • You’re only as good as the people on the teams.
  • Nurture and grow talented people. Help under-performers to perform. Let people go when necessary.
  • Get really good at recruiting.  Focus on what the candidate will do for you vs what they claim to have done in the past.
  • Don’t fall into the trap of believing process and tools are a substitute for good people.

Footnote: If you haven’t yet, I suggest your read about Google’s insightful research on team performance and how  ”psychological safety” is critical to developing high performing teams. 

Accelerated Velocity: Building Leaders

Note: this article is part 2 of a series called Accelerated Velocity.  This part can be read stand-alone, but I recommend that you read the earlier parts so as to have the overall context.

Positive changes require a guiding hand.  Sometimes this arises organically from a group of like-minded people, but far more often there’s a motivated individual driving the change.  In short – a leader.

Here’s the rub: the tech industry is notoriously deficient in developing leaders.  Too often the first step in a leader’s journey starts when their manager leaves and they receive a dubious promotion… “Congratulations, you’re now in charge.  Good luck.”  If they’re fortunate their new boss has some skill in leadership and management as well as the time to mentor them.  In a larger organization they may have access to some bland corporate training on how to host a meeting or write a project plan.  But the vast majority of people thrust into leadership and management roles in tech are largely left to their own devices to succeed.

Let me pause for a moment and highlight an important point: leadership and management are different skills.  Leaders create a vision and inspire a group of people to go after the vision; Managers organize, equip, and care for the people and take care of the myriad of details needed for the group to be successful.  There’s some overlap, and an effective leader or manager has competence in both areas, but they require different tools and a different mindset.

So what does it take to develop competent and confident leaders?  When I look at some of the best-in-class “leadership-centric organizations” – militaries and large consulting companies for example – I see the following common elements:

  1. Heavy up-front investment in training
  2. An reasonably structured environment in which to learn and grow
  3. A continuous cycle in which role models will coach and mentor the next generation

How did this look at Bonial?

Upon arriving I inherited a 40-ish strong engineering organization broken up into five teams, each headed by a “team lead.” The problem was that these team leads had no clear mandate or role, little or no leadership and management training, and essentially no power to carry out a mandate even if they’d had one.

The former CTO had the good-intention of keeping the organization flat and centralizing the administrative burden of managing people so as to allow the team leads to focus on delivery. Unfortunately this put the leads in a largely figurehead role – they represented their teams and were somehow responsible for performance but had few tools to employ and little experience with which to effectively deploy them. They didn’t hire their people, administer compensation or manage any budgets. In fact, they couldn’t even approve vacations.  To this day it’s not clear to me, or them, what authority or responsibility they had.

This arrangement also created a massive chokepoint at the center of the organization – no major decisions were made without approval from “above”. The results were demoralized leads and frustrated teams.

Changing this dynamic was my first priority.  To scale our organization we’d need to operate as a federation of semi-autonomous teams, not as a traditional hierarchical organization.  For this we needed leads who could drive the changes we’d make over the coming years, but this would require a major shift in mindset.  After all, if I couldn’t trust them to approve vacations, why should I trust them with driving ROI from the millions of euros we’d be investing in their teams?  Engineers have the potential to produce incredibly valuable solutions; ensuring they have solid leadership is the first and most important responsibility of senior management.

We started with establishing a clear scope of responsibility and building our toolbox of skills.  I asked the leads if they were willing to “own” the team results and, though a little nervous, most were willing.  This meant they would now make the calls as to who was on the team and how those people were managed. They took over recruiting and salary administration. They played a much stronger role in ensuring the teams had clarity on their mission and how the teams executed the mission. They received budgets for training, team events and discretionary purchases. And, yes, they even took responsibility for approving vacations.

We agreed to align around the leader-leader model espoused by David Marquet ( in his book “Turn the Ship Around!  We read the book together and discussed the principles and how to apply them in daily practice.  The phrase “I intend to…” was baked into our vocabulary and mentality.  We eliminated top-down systems and learned to specify goals, not methods.  We focussed on achieving excellence, not just avoiding errors.  The list goes on.

I also started a “leadership roundtable” – 30 minutes each week where we’d meet in a small group and discuss experiences and best practices around core leadership and management topics: motivating people and teams, being effective, basic psychology, communicating, coaching and mentoring, discipline, recruiting, personal organizational skills, etc.  Over time, dozens of people – ranging from prospective team leads to product managers to people simply interested in leadership and management – participated in the roundtables, giving us a common foundation from which to work.

As I’ll share in a future post, we also created a career growth model that fully supported a management track as well as a technical track and, most importantly, the possibility to move back and forth freely between the two.  We encouraged people to give management a try and offered mentoring and support plus the risk-free option of being able to switch back to their former role if they preferred.  In the early days this was a tough sell – “team lead” had the reputation of being mostly pain with little upside.  Never-the-less a few brave souls gave it a shot and, to their surprise, found it rewarding (and have since grown into fantastic leads).

It wasn’t easy – we had a fair share of mistakes, failures and redos – but the positive effects were felt almost immediately. Over time this first generation of leads grew their teams and created cultures of continuous improvement. As the teams grew, the original leads mentored new leaders to take over the new teams and the cycle continued. As it stands today we have a dozen or so teams/squads led by capable leaders that started as software engineers, quality assurance pros, system engineers, etc. 

Some closing thoughts:

  • Positive change requires strong leadership.
  • A single leader can start the change process, but large-scale and enduring change requires distributed leadership (e.g. ”leader-leader”).
  • Formal training can be a great source of leadership and management tools, but mastering those tools requires time, a safe and constructive environment and active coaching and mentoring.
  • Growing a leadership team is not a linear or a smooth process.  The person driving and guiding the development must commit to the long game and must be willing to accept accountability for inconsistent results from first generation leads as they learn their trade.

Read part 3: Building Great Teams

Accelerated Velocity: How Bonial Got Really Fast at Building Software

My boss, Max (Bonial Group’s CEO), and I sat down recently for a “year-in-review” during which we discussed the ups and downs of 2017 as well as goals for the new year.  In wrapping up the conversation, I shared with him my gut feeling that velocity and productivity had improved over the past couple of years and were higher than they’d ever been at Bonial – perhaps as much as double when compared to 2014.  

He asked if I could quantify the change, so on a frigid Sunday a couple of weeks ago I sat down with a mug of hot tea and our development records to see what I could do. We’ve used the same “product roadmap” format since 1Q14 (described here), which meant I could use a “points” type approach to quantify business value delivered during each quarter.  As I was looking for relative change over time and I was consistent in the application, I felt this was a decent proxy for velocity.  

It took me a couple of hours but was well worth the effort.  Once I’d finished scoring and tabulating, I was pleasantly surprised to find that I’d significantly underestimated the improvements we’d made.  Here’s a high level overview of the results:

7X Velocity! Bonial team size, value delivered and productivity over time.

The net-net is that in 1Q 2018 we’ll be delivering ~630% more business value than we delivered in the first quarter of 2014, largely driven by the fact that each person on the team is ~250% more productive.  


The obvious next question: how did we do this?

The short answer is that there is no short answer.  There was no single magic button that we pushed to set us on this path to accelerated velocity; this was a long campaign that started small and grew, eventually spanning people, process, technology and culture.  Over time these learnings, improvements, changes and experiments – some large, some small, some successful, some not – built on each other and eventually created an environment in which the momentum sustained itself.  

Over the next few weeks I’ll summarize the major themes here in this blog for both myself as well as anyone who’s interested.  Along this journey I plan to cover (and will link when available):

  1. Building Leaders
  2. Building Great Teams
  3. Creating Situational Awareness
  4. Providing a Growth Path
  5. Clarifying Processes and Key Roles
  6. Enabling Independent Action
  7. Creating an Architecture Runway
  8. Optimizing the SDLC with DevOps
  9. Getting Uncomfortable
  10. Doing the Right Things
  11. Taking Ownership
  12. Building on What You’ve Got

Each of those topics could alone make for a small book, but I’ll try to keep the articles short and informative by focussing only on the most important elements.  If there’s an area in which you’d like me to dig deeper, let me know and I’ll see what I can do.  Assuming I get through all of those topics I’ll wrap things up with some final thoughts.

So let’s get started with part 2: Building Leaders

How we Plan at Bonial (part 2: clarity)


How do you go about fixing something that requires you to change almost everything you do?  As described in part 1, this was the situation we faced at Bonial in late 2014 when it came to the governance and execution of our product development roadmap.  

Rather than re-inventing the wheel, we took advantage of proven play books – one for organization change and one for enterprise agile.  On the organizational side, we knew that the “top down, centralized control” model was already strained and would not scale.  So we leveraged elements from the (fantastic) book “Turn this Ship Around!” by Capt. David Marquett, which describes one organization’s journey from a top-down leadership structure to a “leader-leader” structure with distributed ownership and control.  Bonial would have to undergo a similar transformation – we needed everyone to be engaged and feeling ownership if we were to realize rapid transformation and scale. 

In the book, the author presents a couple dozen excellent leadership mechanisms and groups them under three high-level categories – Clarity, Control, and Competence.  In the interest of brevity, I’ll describe just a few of the things we did to improve in these categories.  (I’ll also break them up over several posts.)

Starting with clarity, we began with the simplest exercise possible: we documented all of the work-in-progress on one list.  Absurdly basic yet profound.  We created the first draft by literally going from team to team and asking them what projects were in progress and putting them in a Google Sheet.  (Why this format?  Because normalizing and adapting the existing tracking tools (Jira, Trello) would have taken far too long and wasted the team’s time and energy.  Also, Google Sheets allow for simultaneous editing which is critical for collaboration.)  To make this relevant for business stakeholders, we then dropped the small “story” and “task” level items and broke down the “saga” level items so that the resulting list was at a meaningful “epic” or “project” level.

Here’s a snap of an archived copy of the first version:

Screenshot of first Bonial Roadmap on Google Sheets

This exercise had several immediate impacts.  First, it showed our stakeholders that the engineering team was actually working on a quite a few projects and began to restore some confidence in the product development function.  Second, it shed light on all the projects and prompted a number of valid and constructive questions as to priorities and business justifications for the projects.  This in turn led directly to our decision to do more formal and intentional planning: we wanted to ensure that our engineering resources were “doing the right things,” not just “doing things right.”

Over time this simple Google Sheet has grown to be the primary tool for viewing and communicating the current quarter’s roadmap development.  We populate the sheet with the output of each quarter’s planning exercise (more on that to follow).  Twice a week we review the status of all items (red, yellow, green) and discuss as a team what we can do to adjust if needed.  The same spreadsheet is publicly available to all stakeholders for full transparency.  We’ve considered several times moving to more sophisticated (and expensive) tools but each time we decided that the Google Sheets does everything we need.

Key takeaway: it’s hard to plan if you don’t know what you’re already doing.  Take the time to get clarity on what’s happening, tune it to the right granularity, and ensure there’s full transparency.

In the next post I’ll talk about how we approach mechanisms for control. 

Getting Extreme


In my previous post on Extreme Ownership I shared that I wished more technology companies would take the principles more seriously.  Over the last month my wish was granted right here at my company.  

Our executive team had an offsite strategy meeting last week, and one of the coolest things we did was take a deep dive into Extreme Ownership.  In the weeks leading up to the summit each member of the team – managing directors, senior execs and CxOs – read Extreme Ownership and prepared homework consisting of an introspective look into how they’d individually violated or been challenged by the principles as well as which principles we wanted to focus on bringing more into the company.

We discussed our experiences over dinner in a very candid fashion.  Each person shared one or two “fails” that tracked back to the principles, or challenges that could better have been solved by better applying the principles.  It’s not often that very skilled and accomplished senior executives are willing to admit to failures in front of their peers, so I think that says a lot about the character of those around the table as well as their commitment to Extreme Ownership.

Some of the maxims that resonated strongly and were repeatedly mentioned:

  • “There are no bad boats, only bad leaders” – the core idea here is that you have to look first at the immediate leader before blaming the team itself for underperformance.
  • “It’s not what you preach, it’s what you tolerate” – how true.  How brutal true.
  • “Check the ego” – as the authors note, “egos cloud and disrupt everything.”  If you don’t have the discipline to keep your ego in check you don’t deserve the trust and confidence of the people you lead.
  • “They don’t want me to fail” – how many times do we assume that a boss or outside organization is to purposely make our lives harder when they put an obstacle in our way?  Probably quite a bit.  And how often is that true?  Likely very seldom.  If we’d drop the assumption of hostile intent and the resulting “us vs them” attitude, business and life would be a lot easier.

One of the longer and more challenging discussions was around how to move to “Decentralized Command” – let’s face it, it’s not easy to step back and let others take charge of executing a mission that you’re accountable for.  But it must be done to scale the organization and to develop the next generation of leaders.  And guess what – sometime they will fail, and you’ll still own the result.  Our COO made a key point here – while failure in the SEALs often results in injury or death, a business fail will have much, much lighter consequences, so we need to take an objective look at the real risk and balance with the cost of not decentralizing. 

As a team we decided on three of the principles we’d like to focus on for the entire organization and each of us was assigned a buddy from within the group to challenge us grow in these areas.  

I was really energized by this process and I’d recommend it to any team that wants to move in this direction.  In hindsight, I recognize that our company already has a pretty solid accountable culture and a general lack of fear, which probably made this a lot easier; some teams will have to overcome much bigger culture and ego challenges.  Which, in the end, means it’s even more vital.

Extreme Ownership, Tech Style

I recently read “Extreme Ownership,” a popular read on leadership by former Navy SEAL officers.  The core premise of the book is that a leader must fully own the results (good or bad) of their results if they are to create and lead a successful team.  Accountability is key, even in cases (or especially in cases) in which events are out of one’s direct control – the leader is responsible for ensuring that everyone in their organization has the context and competence to succeed, even to the point getting rid of underperforming team members when necessary.  There are no excuses.

How I wish I could find more of this in the tech domain.

I have limited experience in non-tech industries so I can’t say whether it’s better or worse elsewhere, but techies love their excuses.  When I was consulting I called it the “Any and All Excuses Accepted Here” phenomenon.  I’ve lost track of the number of status reports (standups, etc) in which someone reports that their task or project is late and everyone (leadership included) just nods at the excuses and moves on.  Perhaps a developer got sick or another team didn’t deliver on time.  Maybe there was a massive network outage that blocked access to servers or critical services. In truth the challenges are legitimate, but so what?  I rarely see the person who owns the outcome and explains what they’re going to do to make things right. 

Why is this attitude important?  Simple: as one of my mentors used to say, the market doesn’t give a damn about your excuses.  Either you deliver and win or you don’t.  

There are certainly companies who are much less tolerant of excuses in their relentless pursuit of market leadership, however that doesn’t mean their leaders actually embrace the concept of Extreme Ownership.  Many of these companies have cultures in which blame replaces excuses and leaders throw their subordinates or peers under the bus.  Shit rolls downhill.  The culture quickly becomes toxic and, while the short-term business results may be impressive and the investors are happy, the people responsible for delivering the success work in fear under weak leaders.

So how do we fix this?

It starts with you.  If you’re a leader in your organization you must embrace Extreme Ownership yourself if you want the rest of the organization to follow suit.  Once you do, you’ll find that it becomes contagious and spreads quickly throughout the team/s.

Getting into the Extreme Ownership mindset takes work.  Start here: the next time your team fails, resist the urge to make any excuses or to pounce on the person who screwed up.  First ask yourself the question: “What could I have done to get a different result?”  Then make it right if at all possible. Own up fully and personally to the failed result and set about doing what you can to make sure it doesn’t happen again.  Sometimes it’ll involve better communications; sometimes more training.  Usually it will require hard thinking in how to do things better.  Often it will need hard conversations about individual performance and in extreme cases the removal of people who simply can’t fulfill their team duties.  The latter is tough and is a last resort, but is necessary to ensure the health of the team.

Creating a culture of ownership is not enough – training is also needed.  Let’s face it – most people are not natural-born leaders. But I believe, and my experience has shown me, that most people can learn to be solid leaders.  As leadership has strong components of science and psychology it lends itself well to training.  We do a great disservice to our industry by thrusting new leaders into roles without any training or support (or worse, sending them to bland corporate boilerplate training).  More on this in a later blog. 

In closing – read the book (preferably with your team) or listen to the interview on Tim Ferriss’ podcast and start adopting the principles.  You won’t regret it.  

Own it!